The Republic of Kazakhstan is a unitary state with a presidential form of government. According to the Constitution, the country claims to be a democratic, secular, legal and social state, the highest values of which are the person, his life, rights and freedoms. Kazakhstan gained independence on December 16, 1991. The capital is Astana. The state language is Kazakh, Russian has the status of a language of interethnic communication. The monetary unit is tenge. The President of the Republic of Kazakhstan is the head of state, his highest official, who determines the main directions of domestic and foreign policy of the state and represents Kazakhstan within the country and in international relations. The government exercises executive power, heads the system of executive bodies and manages their activities. Legislative functions are performed by the Parliament, which consists of two Chambers - the Senate and the Majilis, acting on a permanent basis.
The population of Kazakhstan exceeds 17 million people. The ethnic structure of society, according to the national census of 2009, is as follows: Kazakhs - 63.07%, Russians - 23.7%, Uzbeks - 2.85%, Ukrainians - 2.08%, Uigurs - 1.4%, Tatars - 1.28%, Germans - 1.11%, others - 4.51%. Occupying a territory of 2 million 724.9 thousand square kilometers, the country is in ninth place in terms of area in the world. In the north and west, the republic has common borders with Russia, in the east with China, in the south with Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. The mineral resource base of the country consists of more than 5,000 deposits, the estimated cost of which is estimated at tens of trillions of dollars. The republic ranks first in the world in explored reserves of zinc, tungsten and barite, the second in silver, lead and chromites, the third in copper and fluorite, the fourth in molybdenum, and the sixth in gold. Kazakhstan is among the top ten world exporters of grain and is one of the leaders in the export of flour. 70% of arable land in the north is occupied by grain and industrial crops - wheat, barley, millet. Rice, cotton and tobacco are grown in the south of the country. Kazakhstan is also famous for its gardens, vineyards and melons. One of the leading areas of agriculture is livestock.